單項選擇題下列( )不是工資管理系統的特點。
A.工資結構的可變性
B.設置必須靈活方便
C.工資數據來源多
D.與其他系統聯系少


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Manco has been experiencing substantial losses at its furniture making operation which is treated as a separate operating segment. The company’s year end is 30 September. At a meeting on 1 July 2010 the directors decided to close down the furniture making operation on 31 January 2011 and then dispose of its non-current assets on a piecemeal basis. Affected employees and customers were informed of the decision and a press announcement was made immediately after the meeting. The directors have obtained the following information in relation to the closure of the operation:(i) On 1 July 2010, the factory had a carrying amount of $3·6 million and is expected to be sold for net proceeds of $5 million. On the same date the plant had a carrying amount of $2·8 million, but it is anticipated that it will only realise net proceeds of $500,000.(ii) Of the employees affected by the closure, the majority will be made redundant at cost of $750,000, the remainder will be retrained at a cost of $200,000 and given work in one of the company’s other operations.(iii) Trading losses from 1 July to 30 September 2010 are expected to be $600,000 and from this date to the closure on 31 January 2011 a further $1 million of trading losses are expected.Required:Explain how the decision to close the furniture making operation should be treated in Manco’s fi nancial statements for the years ending 30 September 2010 and 2011. Your answer should quantify the amounts involved.

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(a) Explain the purpose of a value for money audit. (4 marks)(b) Bluesberry hospital is located in a country where healthcare is free, as the taxpayers fund the hospitals which are owned by the government. Two years ago management reviewed all aspects of hospital operations and instigated a number of measures aimed at improving overall ‘value for money’ for the local community. Management have asked that you, an audit manager in the hospital’s internal audit department, perform. a review over the measures which have been implemented.Bluesberry has one centralised buying department and all purchase requisition forms for medical supplies must be forwarded here. Upon receipt the buying team will research the lowest price from suppliers and a purchase order is raised. This is then passed to the purchasing director, who authorises all orders. The small buying team receive in excess of 200 forms a day.The human resources department has had difficulties with recruiting suitably trained staff. Overtime rates have been increased to incentivise permanent staff to fill staffing gaps, this has been popular, and reliance on expensive temporary staff has been reduced. Monitoring of staff hours had been difficult but the hospital has implemented time card clocking in and out procedures and these hours are used for overtime payments as well.The hospital has invested heavily in new surgical equipment, which although very expensive, has meant that more operations could be performed and patient recovery rates are faster. However, currently there is a shortage of appropriately trained medical staff. A capital expenditure committee has been established, made up of senior managers, and they plan and authorise any significant capital expenditure items.Required:(i) Identify and explain FOUR STRENGTHS within Bluesberry’s operating environment; and (6 marks)(ii) For each strength identified, describe how Bluesberry might make further improvements to provide the best value for money. (4 marks)(c) Describe TWO substantive procedures the external auditor of Bluesberry should adopt to verify EACH of the following assertions in relation to an entity’s property, plant and equipment;(i) Valuation;(ii) Completeness; and(iii) Rights and obligations.Note: Assume that the hospital adopts International Financial Reporting Standards. (6 marks)

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Greenfields Co specialises in manufacturing equipment which can help to reduce toxic emissions in the production of chemicals. The company has grown rapidly over the past eight years and this is due partly to the warranties that the company gives to its customers. It guarantees its products for five years and if problems arise in this period it undertakes to fix them, or provide a replacement product.You are the manager responsible for the audit of Greenfields and you are performing the final review stage of the audit and have come across the following two issues.Receivable balance owing from Yellowmix CoGreenfields has a material receivable balance owing from its customer, Yellowmix Co. During the year-end audit, your team reviewed the ageing of this balance and found that no payments had been received from Yellowmix for over six months, and Greenfields would not allow this balance to be circularised. Instead management has assured your team that they will provide a written representation confirming that the balance is recoverable.Warranty provisionThe warranty provision included within the statement of financial position is material. The audit team has performed testing over the calculations and assumptions which are consistent with prior years. The team has requested a written representation from management confirming the basis and amount of the provision are reasonable. Management has yet to confirm acceptance of this representation.Required:(a) Describe the audit procedures required in respect of accounting estimates. (5 marks)(b) For each of the two issues above:(i) Discuss the appropriateness of written representations as a form. of audit evidence; and (4 marks)(ii) Describe additional procedures the auditor should now perform. in order to reach a conclusion on the balance to be included in the financial statements. (6 marks)Note: The total marks will be split equally between each issue.(c) The directors of Greenfields have decided not to provide the audit firm with the written representation for the warranty provision as they feel that it is unnecessary.Required:Explain the steps the auditor of Greenfields Co should now take and the impact on the audit report in relation to the refusal to provide the written representation. (5 marks)

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Tench Cars (Tench) is large national car manufacturing business. It is based in Essland, a country that has recently turned from state communism to democratic capitalism. The car industry had been heavily supported and controlled by the bureaucracy of the old regime. The government had stipulated production and employment targets for the business but had ignored profit as a performance measure. Tench is now run by a new generation of capitalist business people intent on rejuvenating the company’s fortunes.The company has a strong position within Essland, which has a population of 200 million and forms the majority of Tench’s market. However, the company has also traditionally achieved a good market share in six neighbouring countries due to historic links and shared culture between them and Essland. All of these markets are experiencing growing car ownership as political and market reforms lead to greater wealth in a large proportion of the population. Additionally, the new government in Essland is deregulating markets and opening the country to imports of foreign vehicles.Tench’s management recognises that it needs to make fundamental changes to its production approach in order to combat increased competition from foreign manufacturers. Tench’s cars are now being seen as ugly, pollutive and with poor safety features in comparison to the foreign competition. Management plans to address this by improving the quality of its cars through the use of quality management techniques. It plans to improve financial performance through the use of Kaizen costing and just-in-time purchasing and production. Tench’s existing performance reporting system uses standard costing and budgetary variance analysis in order to monitor and control production activities.The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of Tench has commented that he is confused by the terminology associated with quality management and needs a clearer understanding of the different costs associated with quality management. The CFO also wants to know the impact of including quality costs and using the Kaizen costing approach on the traditional standard costing approach at Tench.Required:Write to the CFO to:(a) Discuss the impact of collection and use of quality costs on the current costing systems at Tench. (6 marks)(b) Discuss and evaluate the impact of the Kaizen costing approach on the costing systems and employee management at Tench. (8 marks)(c) Briefly evaluate the effect of moving to just-in-time purchasing and production, noting the impact on performance measures at Tench. (6 marks)

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The Chairman and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Kengai Co are discussing whether or not the company should adopt a triple bottom line (TBL) reporting system in order to demonstrate Kengai Co’s level of sustainable development. Kengai Co’s competitors are increasingly adopting TBL reporting and the Chairman feels that it would be beneficial to follow suit. The CEO, on the other hand, feels that pursuing TBL reporting would be expensive and is not necessary.Required:(a) Explain what TBL reporting involves and how it would help demonstrate Kengai Co’s sustainable development. Support your explanation by including examples of proxies that can be used to indicate the impact of the factors that would be included in a TBL report. (8 marks)(b) Discuss how producing a TBL report may help Kengai Co’s management focus on improving the financial position of the company. Illustrate the discussion with examples where appropriate. (10 marks)

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Section B – TWO questions ONLY to be attemptedYou are a manager in the audit department of Beech & Co, responsible for the audits of Fir Co, Spruce Co and Pine Co. Each company has a financial year ended 31 July 2011, and the audits of all companies are nearing completion. The following issues have arisen in relation to the audit of accounting estimates and fair values:(a) Fir CoFir Co is a company involved in energy production. It owns several nuclear power stations, which have a remaining estimated useful life of 20 years. Fir Co intends to decommission the power stations at the end of their useful life and the statement of financial position at 31 July 2011 recognises a material provision in respect of decommissioning costs of $97 million (2010 – $110 million). A brief note to the financial statements discloses the opening and closing value of the provision but no other information is provided.Required: Comment on the matters that should be considered, and explain the audit evidence you should expect to find in your file review in respect of the decommissioning provision. (8 marks)(b) Spruce CoSpruce Co is also involved in energy production. It has a trading division which manages a portfolio of complex financial instruments such as derivatives. The portfolio is material to the financial statements. Due to the specialist nature of these financial instruments, an auditor’s expert was engaged to assist in obtaining sufficient appropriate audit evidence relating to the fair value of the financial instruments. The objectivity, capabilities and competence of the expert were confirmed prior to their engagement.Required:Explain the procedures that should be performed in evaluating the adequacy of the auditor’s expert’s work. (5 marks)(c) Pine CoPine Co operates a warehousing and distribution service, and owns 120 properties. During the year ended 31 July 2011, management changed its estimate of the useful life of all properties, extending the life on average by 10 years. The financial statements contain a retrospective adjustment, which increases opening non-current assets and equity by a material amount. Information in respect of the change in estimate has not been disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.Required:Identify and explain the potential implications for the auditor’s report of the accounting treatment of the change in accounting estimates. (5 marks)

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Section B – TWO questions ONLY to be attemptedThere has been a debate in the country of Geeland for some years about the most appropriate way to regulate corporate governance. Several years ago, there were a number of major corporate failures and ‘scandals’ caused in part by a number of single powerful individuals dominating their boards. Business leaders and policy-makers were sceptical about a rules-based approach, and this led the Geeland stock exchange to issue guidance in the ‘Geeland Code’ as follows:‘Good corporate governance is not just a matter of prescribing particular corporate structures and complying with a number of rules. There is a need for broad principles. All stakeholders should then apply these flexibly to the varying circumstances of individual companies.’Given the causes of the Geeland corporate governance failures, there was a debate about whether the separation of the roles of chairman and chief executive should be made a legal requirement. This resulted in the stock exchange issuing guidance that whilst a rules-based or ‘box ticking’ approach would specify that ‘the roles of chairman and chief executive officer should never be combined… We do not think that there are universally valid answers on such points.’One company to take advantage of the flexibility in Geeland’s principles-based approach was Anson Company. In July 2010, Anson Company announced that it had combined its roles of chairman and chief executive in a single role carried out by one individual. In accordance with the Geeland listing rules, it made the following ‘comply or explain’ statement in its 2011 annual report:‘Throughout the year the company complied with all Geeland Code provisions with the exception that from 1 July 2010 the roles of chairman and chief executive have been exercised by the same individual, William Klunker. We recognise that this has been out of line with best practice. We understand the concerns of shareholders but believe that we have maintained robust governance while at the same time benefiting from having Mr Klunker in control. On 31 July 2012 Mr Klunker will step down as executive chairman, remaining as chairman until we conclude our search for a non-executive chairman to succeed him, no later than March 2013.’Required:(a) Briefly distinguish between rules and principles-based approaches to corporate governance. Critically evaluate the Geeland stock exchange’s guidance that ‘all stakeholders should then apply these flexibly to the varying circumstances of individual companies.’ (12 marks)(b) Explain why a separation of the roles of chairman and chief executive is considered best practice in most jurisdictions. (8 marks)(c) Assess the ‘comply or explain’ statement made by Anson Company in its 2011 annual report. (5 marks)

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Warden Co plans to buy a new machine. The cost of the machine, payable immediately, is $800,000 and the machine has an expected life of five years. Additional investment in working capital of $90,000 will be required at the start of the first year of operation. At the end of five years, the machine will be sold for scrap, with the scrap value expected to be 5% of the initial purchase cost of the machine. The machine will not be replaced.Production and sales from the new machine are expected to be 100,000 units per year. Each unit can be sold for $16 per unit and will incur variable costs of $11 per unit. Incremental fixed costs arising from the operation of the machine will be $160,000 per year.Warden Co has an after-tax cost of capital of 11% which it uses as a discount rate in investment appraisal. The company pays profit tax one year in arrears at an annual rate of 30% per year. Capital allowances and inflation should be ignored.Required:(a) Calculate the net present value of investing in the new machine and advise whether the investment is financially acceptable. (7 marks)(b) Calculate the internal rate of return of investing in the new machine and advise whether the investment is financially acceptable. (4 marks)(c) (i) Explain briefly the meaning of the term ‘sensitivity analysis’ in the context of investment appraisal; (1 mark) (ii) Calculate the sensitivity of the investment in the new machine to a change in selling price and to a change in discount rate, and comment on your findings. (6 marks)(d) Discuss the nature and causes of the problem of capital rationing in the context of investment appraisal, and explain how this problem can be overcome in reaching the optimal investment decision for a company. (7 marks)

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(a) IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors contains guidance on the use of accounting policies and accounting estimates.Required:Explain the basis on which the management of an entity must select its accounting policies and distinguish, with an example, between changes in accounting policies and changes in accounting estimates. (5 marks)(b) The directors of Tunshill are disappointed by the draft profi t for the year ended 30 September 2010. The company’s assistant accountant has suggested two areas where she believes the reported profi t may be improved:(i) A major item of plant that cost $20 million to purchase and install on 1 October 2007 is being depreciated on a straight-line basis over a fi ve-year period (assuming no residual value). The plant is wearing well and at the beginning of the current year (1 October 2009) the production manager believed that the plant was likely to last eight years in total (i.e. from the date of its purchase). The assistant accountant has calculated that, based on an eight-year life (and no residual value) the accumulated depreciation of the plant at 30 September 2010 would be $7·5 million ($20 million/8 years x 3). In the fi nancial statements for the year ended 30 September 2009, the accumulated depreciation was $8 million ($20 million/5 years x 2). Therefore, by adopting an eight-year life, Tunshill can avoid a depreciation charge in the current year and instead credit $0·5 million ($8 million – $7·5 million) to the income statement in the current year to improve the reported profi t. (5 marks)(ii) Most of Tunshill’s competitors value their inventory using the average cost (AVCO) basis, whereas Tunshill uses the fi rst in fi rst out (FIFO) basis. The value of Tunshill’s inventory at 30 September 2010 (on the FIFO basis) is $20 million, however on the AVCO basis it would be valued at $18 million. By adopting the same method (AVCO) as its competitors, the assistant accountant says the company would improve its profi t for the year ended 30 September 2010 by $2 million. Tunshill’s inventory at 30 September 2009 was reported as $15 million, however on the AVCO basis it would have been reported as $13·4 million. (5 marks)Required:Comment on the acceptability of the assistant accountant’s suggestions and quantify how they would affect the fi nancial statements if they were implemented under IFRS. Ignore taxation.Note: the mark allocation is shown against each of the two items above.

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Some commentators argue that: ‘With continuing pressure to control costs and maintain efficiency, the time has come for all public sector organisations to embrace zero-based budgeting. There is no longer a place for incremental budgeting in any organisation, particularly public sector ones, where zero-based budgeting is far more suitable anyway.’Required:(a) Discuss the particular difficulties encountered when budgeting in public sector organisations compared with budgeting in private sector organisations, drawing comparisons between the two types of organisations. (5 marks)(b) Explain the terms ‘incremental budgeting’ and ‘zero-based budgeting’. (4 marks)(c) State the main stages involved in preparing zero-based budgets. (3 marks)(d) Discuss the view that ‘there is no longer a place for incremental budgeting in any organisation, particularly public sector ones,’ highlighting any drawbacks of zero-based budgeting that need to be considered. (8 marks)

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